Era 2: Colonization and Settlement In learning about the regional settlement patterns and significant developments of the three distinct colonial regions prior to the American Revolution, students apply their conceptual understanding of regions and the geography of the United States. They explore how the geography influenced peoples’ daily lives and economic activities as three distinct colonial regions developed. The expectations require students to apply concepts of government and economics to further understand the Southern, New England, and Middle colonies as they learn about the establishment of colonial settlements, development of colonial governments, role of religion, relationships between colonists and American Indians, and development of the institution of slavery. Using geography, students explore how human systems such as religion, movement of people, and ethnic diversity led to the establishment of other colonies within particular regions. Special attention is paid to the European slave trade and slavery in Colonial America as students explore the lives of enslaved peoples and free Africans living in the American colonies. Fifth grade students enhance their understanding of historical perspective by analyzing the perspectives of different groups living in colonial America. By comparing the different colonial regions that developed with respect to politics, economics, religion, social institutions, and human-environment interactions, the expectations prepare students for American history in middle school serving as the precursor for the regional and racial issues that culminated in the Civil War.